In the internal combustion engine, the power is in proportion to the amount of air and fuel that enter the cylinder. By introducing more air into the engines, smaller engines can behave like bigger engines, and bigger engines can have more power.
This is possible with the use of a turbocharger. It’s about compressing air, thereby increasing its density. Intercoolers are also used as a way to increase air density. The high density air then enters the intake manifold. It moves to the cylinder, where it mixes with fuel to establish a similar air/fuel ratio. This creates greater combustion, more pressure and conclusively, more power.
Turbochargers of the future are being developed now. What we can expect are decisive changes to its form and function. Modern turbos are now made of stainless steel housing and nickel alloy turbines that can withstand the heat of the exhaust stream.
This means using less fuel to cool the turbo units, thereby increasing fuel economy. We can also expect engineering adaptations like turbine blade shape, bearings that use less oil and the use of lighter materials.
These work in tandem with an efficient direct fuel injection system, and a smarter sensor programming that control cam timing, turbo boost and throttle.
These technological advances are designed to meet the demand for efficient turbocharging at low and medium speed, which is the most common powerband for heavy and light vehicles respectively.
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