Also known as a twin-turbocharger, the two-stage turbocharger is turbo system allows a 4-stroke engine to utilize both high and low pressure gases simultaneously. This exponentially boosts power output and improves fuel efficiency, allowing engine designs to become smaller without compromising performance.
However, current two-stage turbochargers are unable to isolate high-pressure and low-pressure forces. This results in conflicting fluid dynamics, which is the reason why two-stage turbochargers work best at low to medium engine speeds (during which both the high and low pressure components are working in parallel to one another).
Because gas pressure drops as velocities increase, only the low-pressure part of the system is functional at high engine speeds, resulting in a lot of wasted power potential.
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GM to solve problem with latest two stage turbo system (turbocharger) design.
A new development by General Motors promises to further improve upon the turbo system with its latest patented design. The new system starts by linking the high-pressure turbo to the exhaust manifold through a “high-pressure inlet” while the low pressure turbo is attached to the high-pressure turbo through the “low-pressure inlet” and to the “high pressure inlet duct” through a connecting channel.
Then, by introducing a HP bypass that is controlled electronically by an Engine Control Unit (ECU), the new turbocharger design is able to isolate the low-pressure turbo from the high-pressure turbo depending on engine speed and pressures. That is, when the high-pressure inlet is closed, the common channel is opened and vice versa. This serves to create an environment where there aren’t any “fluid dynamics preferences”.
The high-pressure and low-pressure inlet valves are connected to the same actuator, which are placed exactly 90 degrees perpendicular to each other and thus are simultaneously controlled by the same ECU in order to improve mechanical simplicity.
Although the new two-stage turbocharger will probably not be available for regular vehicles or as a installable turbo kit so soon it’s only be a matter of time before that happens.
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